Login or Register to make a submission.

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Guidelines for style and references

  • As far as formatting the article, please be aware of the following: uniform font size throughout the article; do not indent paragraphs; separate paragraphs by two hard returns; do not use periods in abbreviations consisting of capital letters or for acronyms (e.g. EU, CJEU, TEU, TFEU); spell out numbers one to nine; use figures for numerals 10 and over; format dates as follows: 15 June 1975; quoted material should be in double quotes, whether in text or notes; single quotes should be used for a quote within a quote; judgement quotations should be as follows: Judgement Pringle, 27 November 2012, Case C-370/12, recital 58.  
  • Headings and subheadings, should be aligned at the left margin, using the following hierarchy:  First-level headings in bold, with an initial capital letter for proper nouns; Second-level headings in bold italics, with an initial capital letter for proper nouns; Third-level (and subsequent if necessary) in italics, with an initial capital letter for proper nouns.
  • Notes should be marked clearly in the text at the point of punctuation by superior numbers, and listed consecutively at the bottom of each page. Notes are single-spaced, and a blank line between notes should be inserted.
  • The following examples illustrate citations using the system which presents bibliographic information in footnotes. The first citation of a work requires full bibliographic information in accordance to the type of source (i.e., book, journal article, etc.). Subsequent citations only require a shortened version, usually just author and page or author, shortened title of source, and page number. It is important to use a consistent citation style.


One author
  1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
  2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.
Two or more authors
  1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
  2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61.
For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):
  1. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s . . .
  2. Barnes et al., Plastics . . .
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
  1. Richmond Lattimore, trans., The Iliad of Homer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 91–92.
  2. Lattimore, Iliad, 24.
Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
  1. Gabriel García Márquez, Love in the Time of Cholera, trans. Edith Grossman (London: Cape, 1988), 242–55.
  2. García Márquez, Cholera, 33.
Chapter or other part of a book
  1. John D. Kelly, “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War,” in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.
  2. Kelly, “Seeing Red,” 81–82.
Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)
  1. Quintus Tullius Cicero, “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship,” in Rome: Late Republic and Principate, ed. Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White, vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, ed. John Boyer and Julius Kirshner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 35.
  2. Cicero, “Canvassing for the Consulship,” 35.
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
  1. James Rieger, introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xx–xxi.
  2. Rieger, introduction, xxxiii.
Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.
  1. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.
  2. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
  3. Austen, Pride and Prejudice.
  4. Kurland and Lerner, Founder’s Constitution, chap. 10, doc. 19.

Journal Article

Article in a print journal

In a note, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. 
  1. Joshua I. Weinstein, “The Market in Plato’s Republic”, Classical Philology 104 (2009): 440.
  2. Weinstein, “Plato’s Republic,” 452–53.
Article in an online journal
Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.
  1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network”, American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.
  2. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 439.

Article in a newspaper or popular magazine

Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, ...”) instead of in a note. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.
  1. Daniel Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” New Yorker, January 25, 2010, 68.
  2. Sheryl Gay Stolberg and Robert Pear, “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote,” New York Times, February 27, 2010, accessed February 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.
  3. Mendelsohn, “But Enough about Me,” 69.
  4. Stolberg and Pear, “Wary Centrists.”

Book review

  1. David Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner,” review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan, New York Times, April 23, 2006, Sunday Book Review, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/23/books/review/23kamp.html.
  2. Kamp, “Deconstructing Dinner.”

Thesis or dissertation

  1. Mihwa Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty” (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008).
  2. Choi, “Contesting Imaginaires.”

Paper presented at a meeting or conference

  1. Rachel Adelman, “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition” (paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24, 2009).
  2. Adelman, “Such Stuff as Dreams.”


A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text or in a note (“As of July 19, 2008, the McDonald’s Corporation listed on its website ...”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified.
  1. “Google Privacy Policy,” last modified March 11, 2009, http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.
  2. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts,” McDonald’s Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.
  3. “Google Privacy Policy.”
  4. “Toy Safety Facts.”

Blog entry or comment

Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010, ...”) instead of in a note. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. There is no need to add pseud. after an apparently fictitious or informal name. (If an access date is required, add it before the URL; see examples elsewhere in this guide.)
  1. Jack, February 25, 2010 (7:03 p.m.), comment on Richard Posner, “Double Exports in Five Years?,” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21, 2010, http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/2010/02/double-exports-in-five-years-posner.html.
  2. Jack, comment on Posner, “Double Exports.”

E-mail or text message

E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text (“In a text message to the author on March 1, 2010, John Doe revealed ...”) instead of in a note. The following example shows the more formal version of a note.
  1. John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.