Humanoid robots for contract visualisation


  • Colette R. Brunschwig University of Zurich


visual law – contract law – EU law – legal theory – robot-based contract visualisation


This paper challenges two assumptions made by most lawyers: first, that contracts should consist of words alone; second, that only human beings are capable of designing the “look and feel” of contracts. These assumptions amount to taboos – even in today’s digital world. Humanoid robots for contract visualisation would or rather will break these taboos. Contract visualisation constitutes a fledgling subject concerning various fields of law (e.g. visual law, legal design, contract law, legal theory and EU law). This topic needs to be explored from different perspectives. Although humanoid robots are being increasingly implemented in the legal context, their potential for contract visualisation has not yet been investigated. This paper therefore discusses contract visualisation and how humanoid robots might use visuals of the Contract Design Pattern Library presented by the International Association for Contract & Commercial Management (IACCM). The findings prompt discussion about whether and, if so, how to communicate legally with those anthropomorphic machines. Or even more specifically, about whether and, if so, how humanoid robots might best represent contracts visually and communicate these both to humans and to other humanoid robots.


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How to Cite

R. Brunschwig, C. (2020). Humanoid robots for contract visualisation. UNIO – EU Law Journal, 6(1), 142–160. Retrieved from