Child studies through the lens of applied family social systems theory
Keywords:social systems, family systems, family activities, community activities, parenting practices, child learning, intervention
The foundations of an applied family social systems theory for explaining the multiple determinants of child well-being, learning, and development, parenting beliefs, behavior and practices, and family well-being are described. The theory is derived from tenets of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory and other social, family, and contextualized theories. The applied theory was used to develop an activity setting model of young children’s everyday learning opportunities and a family systems intervention practices model for ensuring parents and other caregivers have the time and psychological energy to provide young children with development-instigating and development-enhancing learning opportunities in the contexts of everyday family and community life. Results from three different lines of research are described which provide support for the applied systems model and the two associated intervention models. Results showed that different child characteristics, setting characteristics, parenting behavior and practices, family and social systems variables, and practitioner measures were empirically related to variations in child, parent, and family outcomes. There were also discernable pathways of influence between family systems intervention model practices, parenting practices, and child outcomes mediated by parent self-efficacy beliefs and parent well-being. The contributions of the theory, models, and research findings to child studies are described.
Almasri, N. A., Saleh, M., & Dunst, C. J. (2014). Psychometric properties of the Arabic Family Support Scale for families of children and youth with cerebral palsy in Jordan. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(3), 223-232. https://doi.org/210.3109/13668250.13662014.13914474 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2014.914474
Armstrong, M. L., Birnie-Lefcovitch, S., & Unger, M. T. (2005). Pathways between social support, family well-being, quality of parenting, and child resilience: What we know. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(2), 269-281. https://doi.org/210.1007/s10826-10005-15054-10824 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-005-5054-4
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.
Bragg, S., & Kehily, M. J. (Eds.). (2013). Children and young people's cultural worlds (2nd ed.). Bristol University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt1t896z3
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1975). Is early intervention effective? In B. Z. Friedlander, G. M. Sterritt, & G. E. Kirk (Eds.), Exceptional infant: Vol. 3. Assessment and intervention (pp. 449-475). Brunner/Mazel. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146817407600202 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/016146817407600202
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1992). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp. 187-248). Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1993). The ecology of cognitive development: Research models and fugitive findings. In R. H. Wozniak & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Development in context: Acting and thinking in specific environments (pp. 3-44). Erlbaum.
Canosa, A., & Graham, A. (2020). Tracing the contributions of childhood studies: Maintaining momentum while navigating tensions. Childhood, 27(1), 25-47. https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568219886619 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568219886619
Cantor, P., Lerner, R. M., Pittman, K. J., Chase, P., & Gomperts, N. (2021). Whole-child development, learning, and thriving: A dynamic systems approach. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108954600 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108954600
Cantor, P., Osher, D., Berg, J., Steyer, L., & Rose, T. (2019). Malleability, plasticity, and individuality: How children learn and develop in context. Applied Developmental Science, 23(4), 307-337. https://doi.org/310.1080/10888691.10882017.11398649 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2017.1398649
Cochran, M., & Niego, S. (2002). Parenting and social networks. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 4. Social conditions and applied parenting. Psychology Press.
Dunst, C. J. (1985). Rethinking early intervention. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5(1-2), 165-201. https://doi.org/110.1016/S0270-4684(1085)80012-80014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0270-4684(85)80012-4
Dunst, C. J. (2000). Revisiting "Rethinking early intervention". Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20(2), 95-104. https://doi.org/110.1177/027112140002000205 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/027112140002000205
Dunst, C. J. (2001). Participation of young children with disabilities in community learning activities. In M. J. Guralnick (Ed.), Early childhood inclusion: Focus on change (pp. 307-333). Brookes Publishing Co.
Dunst, C. J. (2008). Parent and community assets as sources of young children's learning opportunities: Revised and expanded. Winterberry Press.
Dunst, C. J. (2017a). Family systems early childhood intervention. In H. Sukkar, C. J. Dunst, & J. Kirkby (Eds.), Early childhood intervention: Working with families of young children with special needs (pp. 38-60). Routledge.
Dunst, C. J. (2017b). Procedures for developing evidence-informed performance checklists for improving early childhood intervention practices. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(3), 1-13. http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jel/article/view/66005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v6n3p1
Dunst, C. J. (2020a). Everyday learning opportunities of young children with and without developmental disabilities. International Journal of Early Childhood Environmental Education, 7(3), 23-41. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1264525.
Dunst, C. J. (2020b). Modeling the relationships between parent strengths, parenting efficacy beliefs, and child social-affective behavior. International Journal of Child Development and Mental Health, 8(2), 11-18. https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/cdmh/article/view/232866
Dunst, C. J. (2020c). Parents' interests and abilities as sources of young children's everyday learning opportunities. Journal of Family Strengths, 20(1), 4. https://digitalcommons.library.tmc.edu/jfs/vol20/iss21/24
Dunst, C. J. (2021a). Differential relationships between the adequacy of different types of family resources and psychological health and well-being: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Health and Psychology Research, 9(2), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.37745/ijhpr.37713
Dunst, C. J. (2021b). Family hardiness and parent and family functioning in households with children experiencing adverse life events: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Psychological Research, 14(2), 93-118. https://doi.org/110.21500/20112084.20115236 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.5236
Dunst, C. J. (2021c). Family strengths, the circumplex model of family systems, and personal and family functioning: A meta-analysis of the relationship among study measures. Journal of Behavior, Health & Social Issues, 13(2), 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.22201/fesi.20070780e.20072021.20070713.20070782.20077837
Dunst, C. J. (2021d). Meta-analysis of the relationships between the adequacy of family resources and parenting beliefs and practices. British Journal of Psychology Research, 9(2), 56-76. https://www.eajournals.org/journals/british-journal-of-psychology-research-bjpr/vol-59-issue-52-2021/meta-analysis-of-the-relationships-between-the-adequacy-of-family-resources-and-parenting-beliefs-and-practices/
Dunst, C. J. (2021e). Meta-analysis of the relationships between the adequacy of family resources and personal, family, and child well-being. European Journal of Psychological Research, 8(2), 35-49. https://www.eajournals.org/journals/british-journal-of-psychology-research-bjpr/vol-39-issue-32-2021/meta-analysis-of-the-relationships-between-the-adequacy-of-family-resources-and-parenting-beliefs-and-practices/
Dunst, C. J. (2021f). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationships between different dimensions of family strengths and personal and family well-being. Journal of Family Research, 33(1), 209-229. https://doi.org/210.20377/jfr-20578 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20377/jfr-578
Dunst, C. J. (2022a). Associations between perceived family social support and the psychological health of caregivers of children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychological Research, 9(2), 32-57. https://www.idpublications.org/ejpr-vol-9-no-2-2022/
Dunst, C. J. (2022b). Systematic review and meta-analysis of family needs studies: Relationships with parent, family and child functioning. European Journal of Psychology and Educational Research, 5(1), 11-32. https://pdf.ejper.com/EJPER_15_11_11.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.12973/ejper.5.1.11
Dunst, C. J. (2022c). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationships between family social support and parenting stress, burden, beliefs and practices. International Journal of Health and Psychology Research, 10(3), 18-30. https://doi.org/ 10.37745/ijhpr.13/vol1Ono1pp.18-30 DOI: https://doi.org/10.37745/ijhpr.13/vol10no1pp.18-30
Dunst, C. J. (2022d). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationships between the adequacy of family resources and parenting stress. International Journal of Health and Psychology Research, 10(1), 18-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37745/ijhpr.13/vol10no1pp.18-30
Dunst, C. J., Bruder, M. B., Trivette, C. M., Hamby, D., Raab, M., & McLean, M. (2001). Characteristics and consequences of everyday natural learning opportunities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(2), 68-92. https://doi.org/10.1177/027112140102100202 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/027112140102100202
Dunst, C. J., Bruder, M. B., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (2005). Young children's natural learning environments: Contrasting approaches to early childhood intervention indicate differential learning opportunities. Psychological Reports, 96(1), 231-234. https://doi.org/210.2466/pr2460.2496.2461.2231-2234 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.96.1.231-234
Dunst, C. J., Bruder, M. B., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (2006). Everyday activity settings, natural learning environments, and early intervention practices. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 3(1), 3-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2006.00047.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-1130.2006.00047.x
Dunst, C. J., & Espe-Sherwindt, M. (2016). Family-centered practices in early childhood intervention. In B. Reichow, B. A. Boyd, E. E. Barton, & S. L. Odom (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood special education (pp. 37-55). Springer International. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28492-7_3
Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., & Raab, M. (2019). Modeling the relationships between practitioner capacity-building practices and the behavior and development of young children with disabilities and delays. Educational Research and Reviews, 14(9), 309-319. https://doi.org/310.5897/ERR2019.3742 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2019.3742
Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., Trivette, C. M., Raab, M., & Bruder, M. B. (2000). Everyday family and community life and children's naturally occurring learning opportunities. Journal of Early Intervention, 23(3), 151-164. https://doi.org/110.1177/10538151000230030501 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/10538151000230030501
Dunst, C. J., Hamby, D. W., Trivette, C. M., Raab, M., & Bruder, M. B. (2002). Young children's participation in everyday family and community activity. Psychological Reports, 91(3), 875-897. https://doi.org/810.2466/PR2460.2491.2467.2875-2897 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2002.91.3.875
Dunst, C. J., Jones, T., Johnson, M., Raab, M., & Hamby, D. W. (2011). Role of children's interests in early literacy and language development. CELLreviews, 4(5), 1-18. http://www.earlyliteracylearning.org/cellreviews/cellreviews_v14_n15.pdf
Dunst, C. J., Lowe, L. W., & Bartholomew, P. C. (1990). Contingent social responsiveness, family ecology, and infant communicative competence. NSSLHA Journal, 17, 39-49. https://doi.org/10.1044/nsshla_1017_1039 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1044/nsshla_17_39
Dunst, C. J., & Kassow, D. Z. (2008). Caregiver sensitivity, contingent social responsiveness, and secure infant attachment. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention, 5(1), 40-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0100409 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0100409
Dunst, C. J., & Raab, M. (2012). Interest-based child participation in everyday learning activities. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 1621-1623). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_1779
Dunst, C. J., Raab, M., & Hamby, D. W. (2016). Interest-based everyday child language learning. Revista de Logopedia, Foniatria y Audiologia, 36(4), 153-161. https://doi.org/110.1016/j.rlfa.2016.1007.1003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rlfa.2016.07.003
Dunst, C. J., Raab, M., & Trivette, C. M. (2012). Characteristics of naturalistic language intervention strategies. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis, 5(3-4), 8-16. http://www.baojournal.com/SLP-ABA%20WEBSITE/index.html
Dunst, C. J., Serrano, A. M., Mas, J. M., & Espe-Sherwindt, M. (2021). Meta-analysis of the relationships between family strengths and parent, family and child well-being. European Journal of Applied Positive Psychology, 5(5), 2397-7116. https://www.nationalwellbeingservice.org/volumes/volume-5-2021/volume-2025-article-2025/
Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (2009). Meta-analytic structural equation modeling of the influences of family-centered care on parent and child psychological health. International Journal of Pediatrics, 2009, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/576840 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/576840
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Deal, A. G. (1988). Enabling and empowering families: Principles and guidelines for practice. Brookline Books. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807(198910)26:4<424::AID-PITS2310260416>3.0.CO;2-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807(198910)26:4<424::AID-PITS2310260416>3.0.CO;2-6
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Deal, A. G. (Eds.). (1994a). Supporting and strengthening families: Methods, strategies and practices. Brookline Books.
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (1994b). Measuring social support in families with young children with disabilities. In C. J. Dunst, C. M. Trivette, & A. G. Deal (Eds.), Supporting and strengthening families: Methods, strategies and practices (pp. 152-160). Brookline Books.
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (2007). Meta-analysis of family-centered helpgiving practices research. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13(4), 370-378. https://doi.org/310.1002/mrdd.20176 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mrdd.20176
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (2008). Research synthesis and meta-analysis of studies of family-centered practices. Winterberry Press.
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (2012a). Effect of interest-based interventions on the social-communicative behavior of young children with autism spectrum disorders. CELLreviews, 5(6), 1-10. http://www.earlyliteracylearning.org/cellreviews/cellreviews_v15_n16.pdf
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Hamby, D. W. (2012b). Meta-analysis of studies incorporating the interests of young children with autism spectrum disorders into early intervention practices. Autism Research and Treatment, 2012, 1-10. https://www.hindawi.com/search/all/meta-analysis+of+studies+incorporating+the+interests+of+young+children+with+autism+spectrum+disorders+into+early+intervention+practices/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/462531
Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., Hamby, D. W., & Bruder, M. B. (2006). Influences of contrasting natural learning environment experiences on child, parent, and family well-being. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 18(3), 235-250. https://doi.org/210.1007/s10882-10006-19013-10889 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-006-9013-9
Dunst, C. J., Valentine, A., Raab, M., & Hamby, D. W. (2013a). Everyday activities as sources of language learning opportunities for infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Everyday Child Language Learning Reports, 6, 1-10. http://www.cecll.org/download/ECLLReport_6_Everyday.pdf
Dunst, C. J., Valentine, A., Raab, M., & Hamby, D. W. (2013b). Relationship between child participation in everyday activities and early literacy and language development. CELLreviews, 6(1), 1-16. http://www.earlyliteracylearning.org/cellreviews/CELLreviews_v16_n11.pdf
Dunst, C. J., Williams, A. L., Trivette, C. M., Simkus, A., & Hamby, D. W. (2012). Relationships between inferential reading language strategies and young language and literacy competence. CELLreviews, 5(10), 1-10. http://www.earlyliteracylearning.org/cellreviews/cellreviews_v15_n10.pdf DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/462531
Edwards, A., Bottcher, L., & Fleer, M. (Eds.). (2019). Cultural-historical approaches to studying learning and development: Societal, institutional and personal perspectives. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6826-4
Evans, G. W. (2021). The physical context of child development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 30(1), 41-48. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721420980719 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721420980719
Farver, J. A. M. (1999). Activity setting analysis: A model for examining the role of culture in development. In A. Göncü (Ed.), Children's engagement in the world: Sociocultural perspectives (pp. 99-127). Cambridge University Press.
Friedman, B. D., & Allen, K. N. (2010). Systems theory. In J. R. Brandell (Ed.), Theory and practice in clinical social work (pp. 3-20). SAGE Publications. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483398266.n1
Gershoff, E. T., Mistry, R. S., & Crosby, D. A. (Eds.). (2016). Societal contexts of child development: Pathways of influence and implications for practice and policy. Cambridge University Press.
Graue, M. E., & Walsh, D. J. (1998). Studying children in context: Theories, methods and ethics. SAGE Publications. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781452243153
Hanley, B., Tasse, M. J., Aman, M. G., & Pace, P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the Family Support Scale with Head Start families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 7(1), 69-77. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021354008653 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021354008653
Kermani, H., & Brenner, M. E. (2009). Maternal scaffolding in the child's zone of proximal development across tasks: Cross-cultural perspectives. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 15(1), 30-52. https://doi.org/10.1080/02568540009594774 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02568540009594774
Laszlo, A., & Krippner, S. (1998). Systems theories: Their origins, foundations, and development. In J. S. Jordan (Ed.), Systems theories and a priori aspects of perception (pp. 47-74). Elsevier Science. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(98)80017-4
Lerner, R. M. (1991). Changing organism-context relations as the basic process of development: A developmental-contextual perspective. Child Development, 27, 27-32. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.1027.1031.1027 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.11
Littlewood, K. A., Swanke, J. R., Strozier, A., & Kondrat, D. (2012). Measuring social support among kinship caregivers: Validity and reliability of the Family Support Scale. Child Welfare, 91(6), 59-78. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48623368
Mehl, M. R., & Conner, T. S. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of research methods for studying daily life. Guildford Press.
Murry, V. M., E., H. N., Witherspoon, D., Berkel, C., & Bartz, D. (2015). Children in diverse social contexts. In M. H. Bornstein, T. Leventhal, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Ecological settings and processes (pp. 416-454). John Wiley & Sons. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy411
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Parenting matters: Supporting parents of children ages 0-8. The National Academies Press. http://nap.edu/21868
Newland, L. A. (2015). Family well‐being, parenting, and child well‐being: Pathways to healthy adjustment. Clinical Psychologist, 19(1), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12059 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12059
Nugent, J. K. (2002). The cultural context of child development: Implications for research and practice in the twenty-first century. In J. Gomes-Pedro, J. K. Nugent, G. Young, & T. B. Brazelton (Eds.), The Infant and family in the twenty-first century. Routledge.
Osher, D., Cantor, P., Berg, J., Steyer, L., & Rose, T. (2020). Drivers of human development: How relationships and context shape learning and development. Applied Developmental Science, 24(1), 6-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.10882017.11398650 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2017.1398650
Raab, M., & Dunst, C. J. (2004). Early intervention practitioner approaches to natural environment interventions. Journal of Early Intervention, 27, 15-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/105381510402700102 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/105381510402700102
Raab, M., & Dunst, C. J. (2007). Influence of child interests on variations in child behavior and functioning. Winterberry Press, 1(21), 1-21.
Raab, M., Dunst, C. J., & Hamby, D. W. (2013). Relationships between young children's interests and early language learning. Everyday Child Language Learning Reports, 5, 1-14. http://www.cecll.org/download/ECLLReport_15_Interests.pdf
Raab, M., Dunst, C. J., Johnson, M., & Hamby, D. W. (2013). Influences of a responsive interactional style on young children's language acquisition. Everyday Child Language Learning Reports, 4, 1-23. http://www.cecll.org/download/ECLLReport_24_Responsive.pdf
Renninger, K. A., Hidi, S., & Krapp, A. (Eds.). (1992). The role of interests in learning and development. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Richardson, R. A. (2011). Developmental contextualism. In R. J. R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of adolescence. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1695-2_11 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1695-2_11
Richter, L. (2004). The importance of caregiver-child interactions for the survival and healthy development of young children: A review. World Health Organization, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42878/1/924159134X.pdf
Richter, N., Bondu, R., Spiess, C. K., Wagner, G. G., & Trommsdorff, G. (2018). Relations among maternal life satisfaction, shared activities, and child well-being. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(739). https://doi.org/710.3389/fpsyg.2018.00739. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00739
Rogoff, B., Mistry, J., Göncü, A., & Mosier, C. (1993). Guided participation in cultural activities by toddlers and caregivers. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58(8),I-179. https://doi.org/210.2307/1166109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1166109
Rogoff, B., Alcala, L., Coppens, A. D., Ruvalcaba, O., Silva, K. G., & (Eds.). (2014). Learning by observing and pitching in to family and community endeavors. Human Development, 57(2-3), 69-170. https://doi.org/110.1159/000359915. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000356757
Skinner, E. (1995). Perceived control, motivation, and coping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483327198
Spagnola, M., & Fiese, B. H. (2007). Family routines and rituals: A context for development in the lives of young children. Infants and Young Children, 20(4), 284-299. https://doi.org/210.1097/1001.IYC.0000290352.0000232170.0000290355a DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.IYC.0000290352.32170.5a
Taylor, T. J., & Woods, M. (Eds.). (2005). Early childhood studies: An holistic introduction (2nd ed.). Hodder Arnold Publishers.
Trivette, C. M., Dunst, C. J., & Hamby, D. W. (2010). Influences of family-systems intervention practices on parent-child interactions and child development. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30(1), 3-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121410364250 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0271121410364250
Vandermaas-Peeler, M., Way, E., & Umpleby, J. (2002). Guided participation in a cooking activity over time. Early Child Development and Care, 172(6), 547-554. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430215104 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430215104
Wachs, T. D. (2000). Necessary but not sufficient: The respective roles of single and multiple influences on individual development. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10344-000 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/10344-000
Wozniak, R. H., & Fischer, K. W. (Eds.). (1993). Development in context: Acting and thinking in specific environments. Erlbaum.
Zwozdiak-Myers, P. (Ed.) (2007). Childhood and youth studies. Learning Matters/SAGE Publications.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Carl J. Dunst
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.